Although there are many online cloud alternatives, it is a lot more cost-effective for development purposes to run Kubernetes on a local bare-metal server, this is achievable on Linux by running the Xen hypervisor and this series of posts will walk you through its installation and configuration.
Note that it is also possible to achieve a similar result by running Kubernetes on LXD as discussed in this page on the Kubernetes site, with a one-click install, this guide is more useful if you instead prefer to get your hands dirty and set things up by yourself of course.
In terms of hardware I would suggest at least a 4-core box, it must also support the Intel VT-x virtualization extensions, with probably 12-16GB of RAM and an SSD is definitely a must as having several nodes fighting over a normal hard drive to launch all the Kubernetes and etcd containers would not work.
Let’s first start with a very basic Debian installation, you can follow previous posts in this guide, and you can also look at the installation being done in the following windows:
As discussed in the first part of the Debian installation guide, starting with a LiveCD we can easily bring up a debian system. Here I have booted a Debian Stretch LiveCD on a system with an unformatted SSD (and a formatted additional HD) and will ssh to it from my main system to execute the initial installation.
Note these video have been recorded with termrec and are being played with tty-player which means that besides being a LOT smaller than an actual video, you can copy/paste from them if needed which makes them a lot more useful.
At the end of this video you would execute the systemctl reboot command however, of course. Note you might get a spurious systemd message about not being able to connect to the bus, but this will go away later on after other packages are installed. Another mistake in the video is forgetting to add ,discard to /etc/crypttab which would make fstrim not work.
As described in the next part of the guide you should now be on the actual installed system, as opposed to the LiveCD.
This video was recorded on the console after the first boot, which is why it has a different geometry. As you can see I first had to fix the lvm.conf file to disable lvmetad (which might give warnings on boot), you might or might not want to do this of course.
Also note that there is a pause between about 3:00 and 4:30 where I briefly paused recording, unfortunately termrec seems to be using epoch timestamps so when the recording was restarted it did not skip this time.
As a final gotcha, in this video I had tried to enable the sshd service by using systemctl on it, however although you can in fact enable sshd by executing sysctl start sshd.service, to enable it you have to use ssh.service instead (without the ’d’)
After setting up sshd I could once again ssh into the server, and install a few additional packages. Since I plan to use this machine purely as a server, I did not install things like pulseaudio or typical client software. I did however add X11 just to make it easier in case I needed to do some work on it locally as opposed as through ssh.
At this point it is finally time to take this installation in a new direction by setting up Xen
since this computer will be running Xen primarily, let’s make the Xen appear first in the grub boot menu
this particular server will only ever run nouveau, however let’s still have the flexibility to add nvidia later on by making it easy to switch between Nouveau and Nvidia, it would just be a matter of adding modprobe.blacklist=nouveau to GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX and modprobe.blacklist=nvidia,nvidia-drm,nvidia-modeset to GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_XEN_REPLACE
CMDLINE_LINUX="cryptdevice=/dev/disk/by-uuid/2c9ef020-ed38-4ab7-bdbd-928322631b2b:lvm:allow-discards net.ifnames=1" GRUB_CMDLINE_XEN_DEFAULT="dom0_mem=512M,max:512M dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin" GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="$_CMDLINE_LINUX" GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_XEN_REPLACE="$_CMDLINE_LINUX"
with the above lines and some changes below, we will allow only 512 megs to Dom0 and pin it to one CPU core, leaving the rest of the resources available for virtualization.
From a networking standpoint you could just have your virtual machines share their networking with Dom0 by bridging your physical interface, however I prefer to set things up in a way so that only Dom0 is accessible from outside the box, but all the Kubernetes nodes on it instead are on a private 192.168.100.1⁄24 network, which is accessible from the outside only via specific port forwarding to be done in Dom0.
I do however enable masquerading so the nodes can connect to the outside world directly in order not to have also to set up a docker registry and so on.
Given this, let’s update our /etc/network/interfaces file to contain the following (note the physical interface name is likely going to be different from eno1 in your case, just get its name by running ip addr)
# Loopback auto lo iface lo inet loopback # The physical interface, leave it disabled iface eno1 inet manual # The main Xen bridge, which will be connected to Dom0 and will acquire # an address over DHCP from your network auto xenbr0 iface xenbr0 inet dhcp bridge_ports eno1 # The Xen bridge the other domains will connect to, and that will assign # addresses using dnsmasq auto virbr1-dummy iface virbr1-dummy inet manual pre-up /sbin/ip link add virbr1-dummy type dummy up /sbin/ip link set virbr1-dummy address 00:16:3e:d1:0b:e7 auto virbr1 iface virbr1 inet static bridge_ports virbr1-dummy bridge_stp on bridge_fd 2 address 192.168.100.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up /bin/systemctl start firstname.lastname@example.org || : down /bin/systemctl stop email@example.com || :
Also note you can set whatever MAC you’d prefer for the virtual bridge, I am using 00:16:3e:xx:xx:xx as the initial octets as those are typically used for Xen addresses. You can easily generate random addresses with something like
echo "00:16:3e"$(hexdump -n3 -e '/1 ":%02x"' /dev/urandom)
in order to have dnsmasq available let’s install it and disable it (since we don’t want it running on our main interface)
in order for dnsmasq to work with the above, we should create a systemd unit file for it in
[Unit] Description=DHCP and DNS caching server for %i. After=network-pre.target [Service] ExecStart=/usr/sbin/dnsmasq -k --conf-file=/var/lib/dnsmasq/%i/dnsmasq.conf ExecReload=/bin/kill -HUP $MAINPID Restart=on-failure RestartSec=5 [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
and the relevant configuration files
except-interface=lo interface=virbr1 bind-dynamic # .1 will be the address your Dom0 will be accessible from the guests dhcp-range=192.168.100.2,192.168.100.254 dhcp-lease-max=1000 dhcp-leasefile=/var/lib/dnsmasq/virbr1/leases dhcp-hostsfile=/var/lib/dnsmasq/virbr1/hostsfile dhcp-no-override # Might or might not be useful # https://www.redhat.com/archives/libvir-list/2010-March/msg00038.html strict-order
this will set up an initial mapping we’ll use to validate everything is working correctly later on.
Debian stretch already by default runs the xl Xen stack, however we can make this explicit by setting it in /etc/default/xen in a TOOLSTACK=xl line
/etc/xen/xl.conf in general does not require any changes, since we will configure guests explicitly, the following should be set in /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp instead
(network-script /bin/true) (vif-script vif-bridge) (dom0-min-mem 512) (enable-dom0-ballooning no) (dom0-cpus 1)
I also prefer to start/stop domains manually and don’t want Xen to interfere, so edit /etc/default/xendomains and change the SAVE/RESTORE lines to
after this we can finally reboot and continue now to the next part of the guide